After the Civil War and its reconstruction, the second industrial revolution led to the rise in manufacturing and production technology. People moved from inventing out of curiosity to re-inventing to meet the needs of the people. During this time the railways were networked, the telegraph and telephones were invented, gas and water supplies were created along with sophisticated sewage systems. All were a response to the sophistication and entrepreneurship of the people and industry.
Electricity, manufacturing of iron and steel along with the production of petroleum globally connected the world. This allowed for urbanization with the rapid expansion of transportation. New towns popped up from coast to coast as the transcontinental railways converged.
For the first time people and goods could be shipped from coast to coast that enabled the expansion of territories, but also the widening of social classes. The rich got richer and the poor got poorer. This was a period of instability stemming from the Great Depression. Many struggled to survive while others basked in their wealth. This was a time of expansion, growth, and resilience.